4 December 15, 2016
1. Hamed Alavi
Cost and Benefit Analysis of Fair Trade
European Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 2016, Vol.(12), Is. 4, pp. 139-145.
Fair trade endeavours to provide higher level of finance for producers, sustainable long term buyer seller relationship, formation of effective producer organizations, improve community development and promote environmental friendly production methods. The fair trade process started with coffee. As a result, Coffee still has the highest share of quantity among all fair trade products in the market with highest number of involved producers and workers providing the guaranteed minimum price for coffee sold under fair trade label is supposed to reduce financial risk of farmers and provide better living standard for their workers. However, obtaining fair trade certificates are not free of charge from 2004 as producer should pay for application, initial certificate and also renewal of certificate. Payment of such fees can take away a substantial part of premium received by farmers. Other problem to notice is that fair trade buyers do not guarantee the procurement of whole production of certified producers. As a result, farmers will face a dilemma of whether or not to apply for fair trade certifications or continue renewal of their certificates. In other words, cost and benefits of receiving fair trade certificate is not completely clear for many producers. in its endeavour to tackle above mentioned problem , this paper will take a comparative approach to existing research materials on coffee production under FLC in Latin America to find answer to the question of what are costs and benefits of being a certified fair trade coffee producer? Paper is divided into four main parts. After the introductory part, economics of fair trade certificates will be reviewed. Third part will provide analysis on cost and benefits of receiving fair trade certificate and last but not the least, fourth part will provide conclusive remarks on the discussion.
2. Diana Imamgaiazova
The Media Relations of the Russian LGBT-Movement after the Ban of “Gay Propaganda”: Discursive Opportunities and Constrains
European Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 2016, Vol.(12), Is. 4, pp. 146-151.
Homosexuality had long been silenced in the Russian political arena and mainstream media (Kondakov 2013), and thus, queer activists worked in a very limited public space. The situation had changed after the ban of so-called “gay propaganda” and the simultaneous campaign for “traditional values” in Russia (Wilkinson 2014). The rise of discussion around homosexuality, initiated by the Russian political elites, can be viewed as a discursive opportunity for queer activism (Persson 2015; Pronkina 2016). The current study examined the media relations of the Russian LGBT groups since the adoption of the “gay-propaganda” law. The predictions about discursive opportunities for the Russian LGBT movement were made with reliance to the Koopmans' (2004) theory and Seal's (2013) study of the feminist political protest in Russia. The mass survey of activists (N=132) was conducted for revealing the media strategies and claims of the Russian LGBT movement. It was found that the branch of politically mobilised LGBT activists tried to utilise the discursive opportunities for their protest in spite of the “gay-propaganda” ban in Russia. The rest of the activists followed conservative media strategies avoiding excessive publicity.
3. Petra Jesenská
Analysis of Neological Anglicisms used in Slovak from Aspects of Orthography and Frequency in the Slovak National Corpus
European Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 2016, Vol.(12), Is. 4, pp. 152-159.
The aim of an author is to analyse new Anglicisms used in Slovak from the perspective of adapted orthography and frequency in the Slovak National Corpus (SNC). Significant for our research is the time of the first appearance of an English item in a target language (Slovak in our case). Our hypothesis is to prove that modern neological Anglicisms are considered new in source language as well. Combination of observation, description, explication, analysis and comparison and are the main research methods which are to be applied. Two versions of the SNC are compared: an older version, prim-6.0-public-all available for Slovak users since 2013, and a recent version, prim-7.0-public-all, available for the public since 2015. The aim of both electronic databases of enormous size is to collect all expressions emerging Slovak language. The SNC also provides the date of first emergence of an item and its source, too. The work with the British National Corpus and Online Etymology Dictionary was inevitable, too.
4. Zuzana Tuhárska
Parallel Support of Specialized and Foreign Language Competences as a Tool to Improve the Quality of Contemporary University Education
European Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 2016, Vol.(12), Is. 4, pp. 160-168.
The aim of the article is to explain the relevance of parallel support of both specialized and foreign language competences in the process of university education. This ambition results from the output of the KEGA 018TU Z-4/2014 Implementation of educational methods for enhancement of the education in field of Technical mechanics research project that focused on the modernization of educational methods in order to improve the educational process in the area of selected specializations. Beside other tools, educational materials have been developed based on didactic principles supporting the acquisition of both specialized and foreign language competences. The first part of the article deals with the theoretical background applied in the process of developing the educational materials; the second part presents specific educational material developed as one of the project outcomes.